The pattern detected in any ecological mosaic is a function of scale, and the ecological concept of spatial scale encompasses both extent and grain (Forman and Godron 1986, Turner et al. 1989, Wiens 1989). Extent is the overall area encompassed by an investigation or the area included within the landscape boundary. From a statistical perspective, the spatial extent of an investigation is the area defining the population we wish to sample. Grain is the size of the individual units of observation. For example, a fine-grained map might structure information into 1-ha units, whereas a map with an order of magnitude coarser resolution would have information structured into 10-ha units (Turner et al. 1989). Extent and grain define the upper and lower limits of resolution of a study and any inferences about scale-dependency in a system are constrained by the extent and grain of investigation (Wiens 1989). From a statistical perspective, we cannot extrapolate beyond the population sampled, nor can we infer differences among objects smaller than the experimental units. Likewise, in the assessment of landscape pattern, we cannot detect pattern beyond the extent of the landscape or below the resolution of the grain (Wiens 1989).

As with the concept of landscape and patch, it may be more ecologically meaningful to define scale from the perspective of the organism or ecological phenomenon under consideration. For example, from an organism-centered perspective, grain and extent may be defined as the degree of acuity of a stationary organism with respect to short- and long-range perceptual ability (Kolasa and Rollo 1991). Thus, grain is the finest component of the environment that can be differentiated up close by the organism, and extent is the range at which a relevant object can be distinguished from a fixed vantage point by the organism (Kolasa and Rollo 1991). Unfortunately, while this is ecologically an ideal way to define scale, it is not very pragmatic. Indeed, in practice, extent and grain are often dictated by the scale of the imagery (e.g., aerial photo scale) being used or the technical capabilities of the computing environment.

It is critical that extent and grain be defined for a particular study and represent, to the greatest possible degree, the ecological phenomenon or organism under study, otherwise the landscape patterns detected will have little meaning and there is a good chance of reaching erroneous conclusions. For example, it would be meaningless to define grain as 1-ha units if the organism under consideration perceives and responds to habitat patches at a resolution of 1-m2. A strong landscape pattern at the 1-ha resolution may have no significance to the organism under study. Likewise, it would be unnecessary to define grain as 1-m2 units if the organism under consideration perceives habitat patches at a resolution of 1-ha. Typically, however, we do not know what the appropriate resolution should be. In this case, it is much safer to choose a finer grain than is believed to be important Remember, the grain sets the minimum resolution of investigation. Once set, we can always dissolve to a coarser grain. In addition, we can always specify a minimum mapping unit that is coarser than the grain. That is, we can specify the minimum patch size to be represented in a landscape, and this can easily be manipulated above the resolution of the data. It is important to note that the technical capabilities of GIS with respect to image resolution may far exceed the technical capabilities of the remote sensing equipment. Thus, it is possible to generate GIS images at too fine a resolution for the spatial data being represented, resulting in a more complex representation of the landscape than can truly be obtained from the data.

Information may be available at a variety of scales and it may be necessary to extrapolate information from one scale to another. In addition, it may be necessary to integrate data represented at different spatial scales. It has been suggested that information can be transferred across scales if both grain and extent are specified (Allen et al. 1987), yet it is unclear how observed landscape patterns vary in response to changes in grain and extent and whether landscape metrics obtained at different scales can be compared. The limited work on this topic suggests that landscape metrics vary in their sensitivity to changes in scale and that qualitative and quantitative changes in measurements across spatial scales will differ depending on how scale is defined (Turner et al. 1989). Therefore, in investigations of landscape pattern, until more is learned, it is critical that any attempts to compare landscapes measured at different scales be done cautiously.

Key Point: One of the most important considerations in any landscape ecological investigation or landscape structural analysis is (1) to explicitly define the scale of the investigation or analysis, (2) to describe any observed patterns or relationships relative to the scale of the investigation, and (3) to be especially cautious when attempting to compare landscapes measured at different scales.